Tag Archives: Salafis

You’ll never find this on Salafi Publications: A Necessary Hujjah (Indictment/Refutation) against Saudi Arabia…a kingdom of Sectarian-Deviants, Tyrants, and Powermongers


Allah states, within His Noble-Book: “And, hold-on to the Rope of Allah altogether. But, do not divide/splinter-off (from) one another.”.(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.3, V.103)…regardless to how clear this verse from the Qur’an is, sadly, we, as Muslims (mainly stemming from our natural negative-quality of ingratitude), pathologically yearn to do the opposite of what Allah advises/commands us to do. And, here’s where we get these Sectarian-Groups, that Muslims foolishly invent, that we’re not only prohibited from inventing (Noble Qur’an: Chpt.6, V.159), but also are informed about Nations (specifically/especially the Children of Israel & the Jews & Christians) who came before us, who splintered themselves, by making sects between themselves & were punished/destroyed.(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.98, V.4 & 5) Ironically, no Sectarian-Group manifests this stubbornness & willingness to be sectarian more than the members of the Salafi-Movement, who are granted the full-support of the Saudi Kingdom, to attempt to enact religious dominance all throughout the Muslim-World, while blatantly being one of the leading causes of sectarian-division amongst fellow Muslims.

The Salafi-Movement is no different/better than the Catholic-Church: instead of Vatican City, they have Riyadh…instead of the College of Cardinals, they have the Permanent-Committee of Islamic Jurists…instead of a Pope, the reigning Monarchs of the Gulf-States (Saudi Arabia & Co.) are the Desert-Pontiffs of this “Saved-Group/Saved-Sect”:

Photo: King making dua with the rest of his salafi brothers , is he a salafi though?

Basically, these Rulers/Royals of the sands of the Arabian-Peninsula can waste the wealth of the Believers on unnecessary-extravagance, be Substance-Abusers, Fornicators/Adulterers, Homosexuals…Pimps…Prostitutes…Drug-Dealers…Human-Traffickers, investors in interest-based Financial-Institutions, the whole nine-yards-Their names are not mentioned at all in any Scholarly works, nor on any social-media outlets, nor on Salafi (religious) internet-tabloids (Salafi Publications being the tip-of-the-spear Salafi-Tabloid). Yet, ironically, when a brother takes his wife to a damn movie, the whole Salafi-World seems to just helplessly fall face-first off of it’s sectarian axis…There are so many ironically hypocritical nuanced/blatant, elements, of this, along with so many/too many other Sectarian-Groups among the Muslims.

The History of the Salafi-Movement, the Saudi-Kingdom, and how Saudi Arabia mimics the State of Israel almost identically:

The History of the Salafi-Movement-

All the Saud Kings Men pic

This movement, that everyone across the Muslim-World, who adheres to it, calling it “The Saved-Group/Saved-Sect”, “The Haqq/Truth”, “The Minhaj/Manhaj”, etc., really don’t know the true story behind how this movement started and/or evolved into what it has become today. Likewise, the opponents of the Salafi-Movement very unfairly attribute the founding of this movement to the wrong persons…don’t worry, I’ll explain. Now, in all fairness, most People, who know about the Salafi-Movement, either through name only, actually being Salafi, Former-Salafis (such as myself), etc., don’t know who’s actually the brain-child of it, they don’t know the true historical-architects of this movement.

So, here we go: whenever the origins of the Salafi-Movement are spoken about, the name Muhammad ibn `Abd-il-Wahhab always (unfairly) pops up. Now, why do I say “unfairly”? Because, historical-records clearly show (both religious & universal) that this man wasn’t the founder of this movement. But, I’ll get into, later, why he’s been branded falsely as the movement’s founder a lil’ later on. For now, let’s dig a lil’ deeper to the actual founders of it: Muhammad `Abduh & Rashid Ridha…these two men, originally from Egypt, had enormous influences on the original intent of the Salafi-Movement of that time, which was a political-movement, with religious-elements: the political-elements were meant to simply dispel the growing, uncontrollable tyranny of the failing Ottoman-Empire…the religious-elements were geared towards reforming the general understanding of Islamic-Teachings based upon the example of as-Salaf/the Ancestors (the 1st 3-Generations of Muslims, following the revelation of the Qur’an: as-Sahabah/the Companions [Muhammad] & at-Tabi`in/the Followers [of as-Sahabah]).(Muslim) Both Muhammad `Abduh & Rashid Ridha lived & were religio-socially/religio-politically active during a very hotbed period in the history of the Ottoman-Empire: this was a time that the Ottomans were showing the very first blatant signs of internal bureaucratic-decay & the Middle-East was a prize for European-Powers, ever since the Crusade-Era.(Encyclopedia Britannica) And, also, as a result of the degeneration of the Ottoman-Empire, the Arabs (mainly) started to faction-off & pick sides in what would be the precedents of long drawn-out conflicts, that would have dynamic & also disastrous results for the entire Muslim-World, more specifically the Arab-World, in the centuries, decades, to come, longer after the deaths of people like those whom I’ve mentioned.

The History of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia-
ibn Saud pic

You absolutely cannot speak about the history of Saudi Arabia, without first speaking about the leading causes for its inception. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, basically, evolved into 3-waves, the 1st 2-waves only limited Bani-Sa`ud (the ancestral clan of the current Saudi Royal-Family) to dominance over an-Najd, the central-region of the Arabian-Peninsula. Now, here’s where it gets interesting: Muhammad ibn `Abd-il-Wahhab, a native of an-Najd, who was a Muslim-Scholar, beginning his Islamic-Education very young, began to see the necessity to rid his people of the many long-practiced innovative practices which directly mimicked classic Pagan-Arab idolatry. So, of course, him being so young, so uncompromising in his convictions, he receives opposition rather swiftly, forced from his native hometown, `Uyaynah, into the interior of an-Najd, which is how he and the adherents to his religious-teachings began to be called Wahhabiyyun/Wahhabis (literally meaning: the Followers of Muhammad ibn `Abd-il-Wahhab…now, ironically, this term “Wahhabi” is made synonymous with the term “Salafi”). It is here that one of the most-important religio-political alliances ever forged in Human-History took place. Muhammad ibn-Sa`ud ibn-Muhammad ibn-Mijrin had agreed to protect Muhammad ibn `Abd-il-Wahhab, on the condition that he become the leading religious-figure of Al-is-Sa`ud/the House of Sa`ud (which of course he agreed to): here lies the pavement of the Saudi yellow-brick road, which led to the land of Sa`ud, some 2-centuries later, known forever as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia…for those who claim that Muhammad ibn `Abd-al-Wahhab founded the Salafi-Movement are actually, historically, incorrect. One of the historical-proofs that he wasn’t the founder of the movement is exactly what I’ve previously mentioned, concerning Muhammad `Abduh & Rashid Ridha. Also,  there were People within the Indian-Subcontinent who were teaching the exact same things which Muhammad ibn `Abd-il-Wahhab were & they never met one another, they are Ahmad ibn-`Abd-ir-Rahim, better known as “Shah Waliyyullah” & Muhammad Isma`il, better known as “Shah Isma`il Shahid”.(Encyclopedia Britannica)

Now, we’ll jump to about 2-centuries later: `Abd-ul-`Aziz ibn `Abd-ir-Rahman (commonly referred to as “ibn-Sa`ud”) of Al-is-Sa`ud (which would later be commonly known as simply the Saudi Royal-Family), one of many ancestors of the current Arab-World monarchs, rebelled against the Ottoman-Empire, much like the rest of his geo-political peers in the region, exclusively because the Ottomans were Non-Arabs (yes: contrary to popular opinion the rebellion of the Arabs against the Turks was exclusively racially-motivated & subsequently fueled by the support of the Allied-Powers). They felt ways about being ruled over by Non-Arabs.

So, with the help of the Allied-Powers, who were fighting the Central-Powers (which the Ottoman-Empire was a part of), anyway, they succeeded in destroying the last (globally) recognized Islamic ruling-body of the Muslim-World, al-Khilafah, which has resulted in about 90% percent of all of the atrocities that have plagued the Muslim-World for the past two centuries (both the 1900’s & the 2000’s). ibn-Sa`ud was one of (as a result of demolishing his Arab-Competition within the Arabian-Peninsula) the main boots-on-the-ground military-commanders of the entire duration of the armed-opposition against the Ottoman-Empire, in the Middle-East, which made it easier for the Allied-Powers to flank the forces of the Ottomans, as well as further weaken the strength of the other Central-Powers, during World War I. ibn-Sa`ud was a shrewd politician, who manipulated & maneuvered people at will. One of the proofs of this is the fact that he was able to convince the members of the religious-wing of his regime, Al-ush-Shaykh/the Family of the Shaykh (`Ulama’/Muslim [Religious] Scholars, mainly from Bani-Tamim, the ancestral-tribe of Muhammad ibn `Abd-il-Wahhab, many of whom were most-probably even his biological-descendants), to issue Fatawa/Edicts (sing. Fatwa) against fellow Muslims in the Ottoman-Army, as well as the Muslims in the region, loyal to the Khilafah, to justify fighting against them, killing them, in favor of supporting the agenda of the Allied-Powers, that he may acquire their support of his domain in the Arabian-Peninsula. He established a military-wing of his regime, specifically for this purpose, to decimate his political-opponents in the Arabian-Peninsula: al-Ikhwan/The Brotherhood was a desert-military, made-up of Arab-Tribesmen loyal to Al-is-Sa`ud. Then, after the consolidation of his power in the Arabian-Peninsula was completed, he turned on his own army, raising another army to crush al-Ikhwan, because they wanted to shed more blood of fellow Muslims in the region, like in modern-day Kuwait, and because, he had decided that the fighting was over, that wasn’t good enough for them. He then sought the necessity to destroy al-Ikhwan, in order to maintain order in the Arabian-Peninsula, as to not allow al-Ikhwan to tamper with the very fragile/delicate alliances that he was able to establish with other future Arab kingdoms of the Peninsula.(Encyclopedia Britannica, War in the Desert) And, after the formation of the (official) Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Al-us-Sa`ud decided to (basically) hijacked the Salafi-Movement (they completely converted this movement, turned it inside-out, and made it something completely different from the intent of its founders & early influencers). From the founding of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia & onward, this movement changed direction in a 180-Degree perspective: instead of the Salafi-Movement remaining a political-movement with religious elements, it became a religious-movement with political-elements. The Salafi-Movement converted from having almost exclusively a political-identity to a religious-identity, that is reliant upon the good-favor of its political-patrons (Saudi & Co.), to continue to support this movement financially. Likewise, this movement is also the most influencial element in maitaining the psuedo-legitimacy of Saudi Arabia (existing as a nation-state), religiously giving Al-as-Saud the religious-greenlight to rule the Arabian-Peninsula, and (by default) be the deFacto puppet-masters of the other Arab-Kingdoms/Gulf-States, via immense political, military, financial, influence/dominance.

Now, the last-time that I checked, Islamically, the killing of anyone, especially a fellow Muslim, is a serious Major-Sin; yet, ibn-Sa`ud was allowed to indiscriminately kill fellow Muslims, to promote a (selfish/narcissistic) political-agenda centered upon racism & the pursuit of absolute-power, to not only help abolish a legitimate Islamic ruling-body, but, to establish a kingdom, which isn’t even based upon any Islamic precepts, because there’s no allowances (Islamically: relative to the Revelation given to Muhammad) for Muslims to make themselves leaders, based upon man-made political-concepts (like Kingdoms). And, there’s no Islamic allowances for Muslims to rebel against Muslims in-power; moreover, there’s no allowances, Islamically, to side politically and/or militarily with Non-Muslims, against other Muslims.(al-Kaba’ir/The Major-Sins, al-Wala’ wal-Bara’/Loyalty & Disloyalty) The natural-resources, namely Petroleum, found in the Arabian-Peninsula were later appropriated, based upon national boundaries carved out by agreements between the newly-founded Arab-Kingdoms of the Persian-Gulf region & Great Britain/America, who guaranteed to protect them militarily (so long as the Oil keeps following from underneath the desert), among the future kingdoms of this region and became tightly controlled by the elites of these kingdoms (mainly the royal-families themselves, and those in their financial, military, political, religious, inner-circles).

Some ironic similarities between Saudi Arabia & Israel-

Regarding Human-Rights…
…Saudi Arabia is notoriously known to not fully comply with the minimum standards of anti-trafficking enforcement & are currently not any making significant efforts to do so. Saudi Arabia is a destination for both men & women, from South East Asia & East Africa, to be trafficked for the purpose of labor exploitation. Also, children, from countries like Yemen & Afghanistan, have very often been trafficking victims, for forced begging. Hundreds of thousands of low-skilled workers from places like India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Kenya migrate travel to Saudi Arabia, some fall into conditions of involuntary servitude, suffering from physical and sexual abuse, non-payment or delayed payment of wages, withholding of identification & traveling documents, restrictions on their freedom to travel within Saudi itself and non-consensual contract alterations. According to international organizations, such as the Ansar Burney Trust, young children from Bangladesh and India are also smuggled into Saudi Arabia, to be used as camel-jockeys. These children are underfed, to reduce their weights, in order to lighten the load on the camels used for racing. Saudi Arabia has been classified as having a Human-Trafficking Tier-3 status, since 2005.

In Israel (according to the World Health Organization), Men and Women are trafficked & often used for forced-labor and commercial prostitution. Low-skilled workers from China, Romania, Turkey, Thailand, The Philippines, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and India flock to Israel for contract-labor in the Construction, Agriculture, and Health-Care industries. Israeli migrant-workers are often confronted with terrible conditions of forced-labor. Many labor recruitment agencies in Israel charges fees ranging from $1,000 to $10,000. This causes migrant workers in Israel to become highly vulnerable to trafficking once in the country, and in some cases, situations of debt-bondage are ever prevalent. Israel is also a destination country for women being trafficked from Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Uzbekistan, Belarus, China, South Korea and possibly the Philippines, for the exclusive purposes of sexual exploitation. In addition, NGO’s note an increase in the internal trafficking of Israeli-Nationals, for commercial Sexual-Exploitation, and report new instances of trafficking of Israeli-Women abroad to Canada, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.

Regarding Iran…
…Both Saudi Arabia & Israel are equally-concerned about the political-relevance & military-superiority of Iran. It sends a clear message to both nations, and their benevolent geo-political big-brothers (the United States & the United Kingdom) that there has to be some type of mutual alliance between the Zionist State of Israel and the Salafi-Patron state of Saudi Arabia. The only issue is that while both countries need an alliance against Iran, they’re not the best of friends either, for obvious reasons, namely, the fact that Palestine is under the foot of the Israeli-Regime, which is largely unpopular all across the Muslim-World, as well as the Middle-East & also that the state of Israel has dominance over the Mosque known as Masjid-il-Aqsa, the third highest-regard Mosque in Islam, behind al-Masjid-il-Haram/the Sacred-Mosque in al-Makkah & al-Masjid-in-Nabawi/the Prophetic-Mosque in al-Madinah, present-day Saudi Arabia. So, now, what both nations must do is to consolidate, put aside, their obvious religio-political differences, at the risk of upsetting their very important in-house national power-bases, to come to some type of agreement that as long as Iran stands strong, they’ll have to stand together.

Now, there’s a lot of hypocrisy here:
The state of Israel, with the outlandish support of the U.S., U.K., and basically the whole damn World, has been given the greenlight to do with the Palestinian-People what they will, without any serious, realistic, international intervention or prevention of the atrocities that occur on a day-to-day basis. Does anyone aside from me, whom is a Muslim, find it ironic that a nation like Saudi Arabia, which promotes/sponsors the establishment Islam, based upon the Salaf, is willing to consort/ally with a nation like Israel, that is very overtly Islamophobic, known for its atrocities against People, more specifically fellow Muslims, against another Muslim-Country, like Iran? The last time that I checked, siding with Non-Muslims against fellow Muslims is a serious crime & can even take someone outside of the boundaries of Islam, according to the work, “Nawaqidh-ul-Islam/The Nullifications of Islam”, authored by Muhammad ibn `Abd-il-Wahhab…Honestly, I’m truly surprised that this book, Nawqidh-ul-Islam isn’t banned in Saudi Arabia, because when studying this work, by a man whom is so revered in Saudi & amongst the Salafis generally/especially, it’s so easy to see that at least 1/2 of all of the points mentioned in this particular work apply directly to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, bureaucratically.

So, in conclusion, don’t give your loyalty to any Sectarian-Groups, no matter how much glamorous & glittery their sectarian-presentation…”Everything that glitters is not Gold.”

Gareth Bryant/2013

My Fashion-Week/2013 in Pictures & Why my Love for Fashion matters:


This year, I’ve decided to do something a lil’ different, referring to my many Fashion-Week exploits (…um, I mean adventures…HA HA HA…) via pictures that I’ve taken throughout the week of the Fashion-Week Fall/2013 extravaganza…And, there’s a lot of photos that I’ve taken…

Varsity Flow I

Photo-Shoot in Brooklyn: Photography by Aaron Mark

…The main reason why I’ve taken a sudden, some would dare say, an unusual,  non-conventional interest in Fashion, generally, is simply because, this is one of the main reasons why I was treated negatively, by so many other Muslims…

…Just to give you some background about myself: I’m Gareth Bryant, a 30-something, well-put-together, Muslim, of Afro-American descent, whom was at one point, in his life, a Salafi. In other words, I was a Saudi-Cheerleader (another post for another time to explain what that means). Anyway, according to the Salafi-Movement, the Salafis deem anyone/everyone whom doesn’t share their particular fashion-sense, based upon sectarian/culturally influenced standards is religiously off-the-mark…

Suit and Tie pic

Photo-Shoot in Manhattan: Photography by Alan Mildor

…And, there was even one time, when I was attending a Masjid/Mosque,  the Imam, at the time (by the name of Mustapha George), encouraged people to “boycott” me, as a result of not conforming with Arab-Dress, as the standard for Islamic-Dress, because I was wearing jeans, tees, dress-pants, shirt-and-ties, track-jackets, etc., I was considered & even called, by many, a “Deviant”, “Innovator”, “Heretic”, etc….

…So, instead of conforming, under-pressure, I fought back & enhanced my interest & love for fashion, despite the cruel antagonism of my peers, in this particular Muslim-Sect. And, this experiences encouraged me to look even deeper into the Islamic allowances of fashion elements. And, when I found all of the information that was necessary to fortify the validity of my fashion position, I was able to combat those whom deemed me a religious outcast, just because I wanted to be an individual…

Suit and Tie II pic

Fader & The GAP Opening Fashion-Week event: Photography by StudioBooth

…I’m actually very grateful to Allah, for testing me with these types of people. This trial of mine actually strengthened me in ways that I could’ve never perceived or imagined. It empowered me with the integrity to be different, and not just different -but that being different is okay. Allah didn’t create us to be the exact same people, or to eat the same foods, wear the same clothes,  or to enjoy watching the same sports, etc. Rather, he simply created us to use our minds, to come to the conclusion that He created all which exists & that He is the only one whom is worshipworthy…

501 Union V

501 Union Brooklyn Magazine Launch-Party: Phtography by WeLovePhotobooths

…Now, with all of this being said…Fashion is awesome, and it is my hope to make an even greater presence of Muslims, particularly Muslim-Men, within the Fashion World, because there is a very derogatory stereotype, among Muslims that Muslims cannot thrive in the Fashion-World, unless they’re Homosexual. Yes, it’s a very lame stereotype. Unfortunately, one that is very dominant within the Muslim-World, especially within Muslim communities in the West.

My take on Fashion, and any other secular arts, is this: We, as Muslims, for the past 5-centuries, have been told to conform to the artistic, fashion, standards of others, without any say of our very own. Now, is our chance, to reclaim rightful ownership over how we express ourselves, as Muslims, via art, fashion, etc. And, as long as we stay true to our Islamic principles, with whatever we do in any industry (whether it be Fashion, Finance, etc.), we owe it to Allah, the Creator of the Universe, to define ourselves for ourselves.

Gareth Bryant/2013

al-Husayn & the Massacre of Karbala’:


Author’s note:
It’s a must that I mention that the events, known today as the Massacre of Karbala’, which caused the execution of the maternal-grandson of Muhammad (Peace be upon him), al-Husayn ibn-`Ali ibn Abi-Talib (May Allah be pleased with him), was indeed a true tragedy, and is globally, Islamically, recognized, among all Muslim sectarian-lines, as something that should not have happened, and as well, didn’t even have to happen; but, unfortunately, it did happen, and we, as Muslims have to acknowledge this, objectively examine why it happened & move on in order to move forward, and unify one another, and to cease & desist some of the many unnecessary divisions between the Muslims, because of this issue alone.

Now, obviously, this subject has caused great controversy, both historically, as well as in the present-day still, because of the magnitude of this event, even to the extent as to how this event should or should not be commemorated, among Muslims from various & all sectarian-persuasions-This event has grabbed the attention, emotions, and guilt of so many Muslims, that there are even celebrations, literally around the world, commemorating this event, with people doing things which are completely contrary to Islamic-Teachings. What I attempt to do is to bring some unbiased-light, as a Muslim, loyal to no religious-sect, to this event & the events surrounding & influencing it.

The following is based (primarily but not exclusively) upon the historical writings of Maqtal-il-Husayn/The Murder of al-Husayn, by Abi-Mikhnaf Lut ibn-Yahya ibn-Sa`id ibn-Mikhnaf al-Kufi & Tarikh-il-Rusul wal-Muluk/The History of Messengers & Rulers, by Abi-Ja`far Muhammad ibn-Jarir at-Tabari, two of some of the foremost Islamic-Historians of their time, as well as al-Khulafa’-ir-Rashidin/The Rightly-Guided Islamic-Rulers, by the famous Islamic-Historian, Jalal-id-din as-Suyuti, which chronicles the Khilafat/Islamic-Rulerships of the following persons: `Abdullah ibn Abi-Quhafah/Abu-Bakr as-Siddiq, `Umar ibn-il-Khattab, `Uthman ibn-`Affan, `Ali ibn Abi-Talib, al-Hasan ibn-`Ali, Mu`awiyah ibn Abi-Sufyan (May Allah be pleased with them).

`Uthman ibn-`Affan: His assassination & Civil-War-
Realistically, it would be unfair to mention the Massacre of Karbala’, without first mentioning & examining, with an unbiased-lens, all of the events which not only influenced what happened at Karbala’, but, what had directly caused it. Let’s start with the martyrdom of `Uthman ibn-`Affan (a Companion, twice Son-in-Law of Muhammad [making him a legitimate-member of Ahl-il-Bayt/Members of the Prophetic-Household of Muhammad] and 3rd-Khalifah [the globally-recognized/accepted leader of the Muslims] of Islam); after the vicious torture/assassination of `Uthman, at the hands of three cowardly assailants, from among the Khawarij (the 1st recognized sectarian-group from among the Muslims, thus personally prophesied by Muhammad, during his own lifetime [al-Bukhari & ibn-Majah]), `Ali ibn Abi-Talib (a Companion, paternal 1st-cousin, son-in-law of Muhammad [making him a legitimate-member of Ahl-il-Bayt ] and 4th-Khalifah) had been selected & nominated, by the senior-leadership of the Companions of Muhammad, to succeed `Uthman, as the Khalifah; he accepted the appointment.

Upon this confirmation of `Ali’s ascension to the helm of the Muslim-World, immediately, Mu`awiyah ibn Abi-Sufyan (a Companion, brother-in-law [making him a legitimate-member of Ahl-il-Bayt] and 6th Khalifah of Islam, known historically as Mu`awiyah I) had petitioned that the murderers of `Uthman be brought to justice. However, `Ali had thought it wiser to suspend the pursuit of the assassins of `Uthman and bring political-stability back to the Islamic-Empire first. Unfortunately, that wasn’t good enough for Mu`awiyah & as a direct-result, when `Ali had commanded all the current governors of the provinces, of the Islamic-Empire, serving under `Uthman, to resign from their positions, he refused to step-down from his current position as the governor of Syria.

Now, of course, this was a major-problem-At this particular time, Syria was the wealthiest province, with the largest army within the Islamic-Empire; so, as we all know, unfortunate, bloody civil-war took place. The most historically famous military confrontation during this period was none other than the Battle of Siffin-The painful, shameful, irony is that even many of the Companions of Muhammad (May Allah be pleased with them all-together), who had all fought together, side-by-side, nearly 40-years prior, had taken sides between `Ali & Mu`awiyah, and were fighting, even killing one another. After the Battle of Siffin, a much-need peace-treaty, as well as territorial-partition, was established, between `Ali & Mu`awiyah: basically, as a result of this treaty & partition, all of the territories north & west of the Arabian-Peninsula went under the jurisdiction of Mu`awiyah & all of the territories south & east of the Levant went under the jurisdiction of `Ali.(For more info. concerning the true members of Ahl-il-Bayt: http://www.garethbryant.wordpress.com/2012/11/04/theperfectsolutiontothewholeahlulbaytissue)

`Ali is betrayed & slain, and Mu`awiyah stands alone-
There is immediate dissent, as a result of `Ali agreeing to the terms of this treaty with Mu`awiyah, and many of his supporters turn-tail on him & defect to the already-established sectarian-group, the Khawarij, who end up plotting, and unfortunately are successful in their assassination-attempt upon him. So, after the assassination of `Ali, naturally, the still-loyal-supporters of `Ali, looked to al-Hasan ibn-`Ali (the eldest maternal grandchild of Muhammad & older-brother of al-Husayn) for leadership & to lay claim to head the Khilafah (the Islamic ruling position & government over the Muslim-World). With the support of his followers, he in fact was nominated/selected and confirmed to be the 5th-Khalifah.

However, al-Hasan (very shortly after becoming the next Khalifah) made a very noble decision: he decided to completely end this political/military stalemate with Mu`awiyah, and in the same year as the death of his father (which was actually `Ali’s 6th & final year as the Khalifah), popularly known as “The Year of Unity”, al-Hasan had abdicated his power & claim as the Khalifah & there was a legitimate transfer of power from al-Hasan to Mu`awiyah, thereby making Mu`awiayh the 6th-Khalifah-Shortly after this abdication, al-Hasan ends up dead, in a very straight-forward, sad, manner. It has long be eluded, assumed, speculated, believed, etc., that Mu`awiyah had a direct-hand in the death of al-Hasan; yet, to date, there is no standing, surviving, legitimate, credible, evidence supporting this (controversial) claim. At any rate, as a result of all that went down, Mu`awiyah was the last-man-standing, in this first of many unfortunate political-upheavals within the 1400 year-old history of the Khilafah.

al-Husayn, Yazid, and Karbala’-
Now, to our main point of discussion: Mu`awiyah by this time is dead, after surviving one of the bloodiest in-house political-periods the Muslim-World had ever known, having been the Khalifah for the last 2-decades of his life; his son, upon his request, Yazid (known historically as Yazid I) becomes nominated/appointed as the Khalifah, which sets a trend, that had remained until the end of the `Uthmani-Period/Ottoman-Empire, of having one’s family member (typically father-to-son) be a succeeding Khalifah, thus replacing a former Khalifah. There were still a great deal of understandable animosity between Bani-Hashim (the sub-tribe of `Ali ibn Abi-Talib) & Bani-Umayyah (the sub-tribe of Mu`awiyah ibn Abi-Sufyan). However, the consolidation of the Umayyi-Period/Umayyad-Dynasty was set, and, honestly, there were no serious military-threat to the authority of the rule of Yazid.

However, al-Husayn, based upon his conviction, as well as tension between the himself & Yazid, fueled by the deaths of both his father & brother, caused him to rebel against Yazid, a decision which cost him his life. Yazid being the new Khalifah & all (the 7th Khalifah generally & the 2nd Umayyi-Khalifah), in my opinion handled the situation between himself & al-Husayn very prematurely, as well as foolishly. Likewise, I also view al-Husayn’s decision to pursue a military confrontation against Yazid, against the advice of many still-surviving Companions, including his own cousin, `Abdullah ibn-`Abbas, one of, if not the single most respected religious figure of his lifetime, after the death of Muhammad, equally as foolish & reckless.

He was out-manned, out-weaponed and out-supported. Even as he had made preparations to meet the forces of Yazid, headed by the then governor of `Iraq, `Ubaydullah ibn-Ziyad, it was very clear that from the start, it would’ve been a losing-battle, even before it had began. However, like his father & brother before him, he stuck to ideals that he had deep-conviction in, and was not fearful of the consequences thereof. He was initially welcomed by some factions in `Iraq to establish resistance beginning in Kufa & make this city his base. However, this plan was immediately scrapped, as a result of `Ubaydullah executing several messengers of al-Husayn, including one of the sons of `Aqil ibn Abi-Talib, one of the brothers of `Ali, Muslim ibn-`Aqil-Muslim was savagely executed at the hands of `Ubaydullah, after even Yazid had ordered that the rebellion stirring up in `Iraq be quelled without bloodshed, particularly, without the bloodshed of either al-Husayn or Muslim. By this point, al-Husayn had officially made up his mind that he would descend upon Kufa and lead his insurrection against Yazid from there.

Unfortunately, what he did not expect was for the people of Kufa to abandon him, when he needed them the most. In fact, one of the most (notoriously) infamous statements of the betrayal of al-Husayn, by the people of Kufa particularly, was the following, “Our hearts are with you; but, our swords are not with you.”. This was a most devastating blow to the morale of what was left of the ever-dwindling forces of al-Husayn, and there was no turning back: he couldn’t get any help, from anyone else in `Iraq, by virtue of them either being too cowardly to support al-Husayn & stand-up to Yazid, too far away to reach him in time, turned-tail on al-Husayn, or were just tired of fighting other Muslims generally & wanted this on-going conflict to come to an immediate end.

For whatever the reasons, for people bailing on al-Husayn last-minute, it happened; also, there was no way that he could’ve went back to Makkah or Madinah, to get support or refuge, because he was just too far away. Alas, his fate was sealed, and his life came to a tragic end. His final-stand, against Yazid, was at Karbala’, this was truly about one of the most unfairly matched military battles ever: the official accounts of the attendees of this battle vary greatly; but, it’s safe to assume that the forces of al-Husayn were outnumbered by at least 1,000-1; not only was al-Husayn slain at this battle, in a most inhuman way, but, also a whole slew of his own family-members, whom were with him, at Karbala’. along with his entire (what was left of that is) army. This was truly a sad event indeed.

Now, how can we learn & heal from this?
One particular suggestion is to not deny that the atrocities of this day actually happened: these events actually happened, to people beloved by Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah. At the same time, we must also keep this event in its proper context: this was purly politically-driven, power & control were the ultimate prize, let’s not be blinded by this fact, let’s not deny this. People wanted power, and others got it; people pursued what they deemed as justice, and ended up causing more harm than good; there were a lot of betrayals, sides-switching, loyalty-changing, and the like. However, as Muslims, we must not embody these political-events as though they are our burdens to bear: one, we weren’t there to prevent or promote any various political-agendas; if we were there we have absolutely no idea whose side we’d actually be on; it’s really easy to say, “Yea…yea…Ahl-ul-Bayt…all-day!!!”, outside of reality. But, in all reality, many of us may have very well been from among those who wanted `Uthman dead, `Ali dead, al-Hasan & al-Huasayn dead, we really don’t have a clue what conditions our hearts would’ve been in or what decisions that we would’ve made as a result of that.

So, in conclusion, before you attend any Muharram festival, any Muharram event, visit any gravesites of any members of Ahl-il-Bayt: one, make sure that your heart is right with Allah, by making sure that you’re not participating in any celebration, commemoration, festival, act of worship, which is completely against what Allah & His Messenger has allowed for us, as Muslims to partake in; two, make sure that you heart is right with Allah, in regards to your criticisms of either `Uthman, `Ali, Mu`awiyah, al-Hasan or al-Husayn or any other Companion of Muhammad involved in this conflict, leading up to the Massacre of Karbala’, because for whatever they may have did wrong, they are still among the Companions of Muhammad, the greatest generation of Humans to ever walk the face of this earth(al-Kaba’ir), those whom Allah is pleased with & they are pleased with him(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.98, V.8), and many of those who were a part of these conflicts were even promised paradise during their own lifetimes by Muhammad, personally(at-Tirmidhi, Abu-Dawud, ibn-Majah), as well as by virtue of the fact that they had given all that the had for Allah’s service by preserving Islam for us to inherit today, just so that we can have something to debate/argue about, concerning who was more right than who, or who was more wrong than who.(al-Bukhari)

Gareth Bryant/2012