Tag Archives: Extremism

Yasmin Mogahed’s position on the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict:

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Yasmin Mogahed pic

Author’s-Note:
Yasin Mogahed’s spin on the issue takes us to a place that we ca all relate to: it sets us up & forces us to truly reflect upon the different scenarios that she presents, and how we would view them, had they been in place of the Palestinian-Israeli issue.

I used to wonder why some Palestinian people would engage in actions that could only provoke the aggressor further. Then I realized that to ask a people to live quietly, while they have no justice and no freedom, is to ask them to live “peacefully” as slaves. “Peace” without justice or freedom is slavery. It’s like asking a battered woman to live “peacefully” with her abuse. We all want the bloodshed to stop. But what about the daily humiliation and institutionalized oppression?

I was reminded of a part in “The Hunger Games” when Katniss considers abandoning the resistance against the oppressor, in exchange for “safety”. Gale’s response was telling. He said: “Safe to do what? Starve? Work like slaves? Send their kids to the reaping?”

Consider this: If a woman is being raped, things would be a lot more “peaceful” if she didn’t resist. But, asking her not to resist–just because her attacker is physically stronger–is asking her to accept her own abuse and oppression for the sake of “peace”. This is what the world is asking Palestinians to do.

And sometimes what seems to the world as just ineffective tactics, like throwing a rock at a tank, is in fact an act of resistance. It is a powerful statement to the oppressor–and the world–that they refuse to be enslaved. That dignity and self-respect are even more beloved to them than their own lives.

It is a statement that you can take their lives. But not their freedom.

Yasmin Mogahed/2014

For more info. about Yasmin Mogahed:

http://www.yasminmogahed.com

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A Brief history of Terrorism within the United States:

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I was just thinking of the following:

Whenever Islamophobes talk about “Homegrown-Terrorism/Terrorists”, they always neglect to reflect upon the history of Terrorism, within the annals of our very own American-History. I had debating with a fellow online writer/blogger (http://themuslimissue.wordpress.com/2013/05/11/loonwatch-has-been-claiming-that-94-of-all-terrorists-arent-muslim-whats-up-with-that/), because this person was making the claim that “since 1980, Muslims in the U.S. have been 35 times more likely to commit terror than all other demographics combined.”…by the way, the author of this blogpost also stated, “Reports of bombings, shootings, stabbings and even beheadings by terrorists cross the newswire each day.” he mentioned “stabbings, shootings” as acts of Terror done by Terrorists, so, by definition, Muslims can’t be 35 times more likely to commit acts of Terror, because Muslims still account for less than 10% of the U.S.-Population. So, how could it possibly be that a demographic that’s less than 10% be 35 times more likely to commit crimes against Humanity?!!!

Now, before we go further, let’s intelligently understand what exactly the word Terror, Terrorism, and Terrorist all mean, as to acquire a fair, balanced, justified, unbiased, definition of these respective words, instead of unfair/biased attribution of these terms, almost exclusively, to certain demographics, which are deemed “Un-American” and/or against the “American Way of Life”:

1. Terror (n)- intense, sharp, overmastering fear

2. Terrorism (n)- the use of violence and threats to intimidate or coerce, especially for political purposes

3. Terrorist (n)- a person, usually a member of a group, who uses or advocates terrorism

Courtesy of Dictionary.com

So, by virtue of these respective definitions, it’s clear to see that any act of Violence, meant exclusively to establish fear and/or an objective/motive, can (potentially) be, in fact, an act of Terror, and by that, anyone who commits acts of Violence, can, by definition, be (potentially) a Terrorist.

Now, let’s observe the history of Violence/Terrorism, within the United States, alone, just on the basis of a particular element of Violence/Terrorism:

From 1764, the Colonial-era in American-History, all the up the present-day, there have been hundreds, if not thousands of reported/unreported cases of violent-shootings, involving children, at facilities of learning: Day-Care Centers/Elementary Schools, Junior High Schools/High Schools, Colleges/Universities, etc., within our nation, this United States of America. But, there’s something very important we all must/should know: in all of these shootings, from the mid 18th-century, until now, not one Muslims was ever accused, subpoenaed, indicted, arrested, arraigned, prosecuted, tried, convicted, etc. of any School-Shootings, to date. I mean, realistically, what better way to strike Terror into the hearts of People other than School-Children, right? Now, if Muslims are 35 times more likely to commit acts of Terror/Terrorism, don’t you think that a Muslim would’ve been blamed for at least 1 School-Shooting, in the U.S.?

Good questions right?!!!

#ThinkAboutIt

Gareth Bryant/2013

The Recent Attacks in different countries Worldwide:

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Learning about the recent violent attacks in both Kenya & Pakistan, as well as other nations, are always sad constantly constantly to hear about, or to constantly read about, or to constantly watch on T.V. It still reminds us all that senseless-violence, regardless to whomever commits it, whomever teaches to indulge in it, whomever supports it funds it, either overtly (publicly) or covertly (behind the shadows)…

…And, it’s truly bad enough that these attacks are common-place. But, then, to add insult-too-injury, there are people whom are either masking themselves as Muslims, or are Muslims whom are so misdirected, truly believing that taking the lives of those whom have not harmed you at all are religiously-justified, when there are so many/too many examples, from the Qur’an (Chpt.5, V.32) & Prophetic-Tradition (an-Nawawi), itself, which openly-condemns unjustifiable/unnecessary violence towards anyone or anything…

…As a Muslim, it’s truly heartbreaking, if/when someone actually asks you, “Why do your people attack us?!!!”, “Why did your people take down the Towers?!!!”, “Why do you wanna kill us?!!!”, “Why do you hate us?!!!”. It may seem trivial to some, especially those whom are Non-muslims. But, for us, as Muslims, these types of questions, whether someone is mere jokin’-around (which really aren’t jokes, because to say this to someone really isn’t even funny, even though people do it, thinkin’ that it’s funny), this is a really big-deal…

…For someone to compare you with violence is never a badge-of-honor: It’s just like if people were to compare every Italian/Italian-American with Mafia figures, which are portrayed in entertainment, that would be very degrading, no?!!! Of course, it would, and people, knowing how degrading something like that would be, for any demographic, either religious, ethnic, social, political, etc., would never go there…

…Sadly, though, it’s like there an unwritten no-holds-barred free-for-all, open-season approach, when it comes to Muslims, as an entire global demographic, being (very) harshly discredited, because of the actions of so few people. Bt, that’s just the way things are, I guess; yet, that doesn’t make it right: I don’t wanna look over my shoulder, for the rest of my life, as a Muslim (may Allah keep me a Muslim), compelled to worry that I may be monitored, just because I pray 5-times daily, or because I have a beard, or because I’ve been t Saudi Arabia, for Pilgrimage, an elementary religious duty, for all Muslims, just because of some attack, that I now have to always assume that it will be the Muslims whom are blamed for it, whether or not any Muslim even did it…

…Always on the edge, always paranoid, isn’t good, for anyone, it makes people doubt their own faith/beliefs, it causes division among communities: Hell…it even encourages people to be even more extreme & actually do more acts of violence, out of frustration, anxiety, etc. This has to stop…on all-ends…

…Muslims must truly learn what Islam is & what it’s not. Those whom are Non-Muslims need to learn Islam from Muslims, where they actually are in the World, as opposed to turning on the T.V., to watch Glenn Beck, Bill O’Reilly, Bill Maher, Sean Hannity, Daniel Pipes, Pamela Geller, etc….

…But, in the meantime: Please, ask Allah to makes things easy for the surviving victims of the recent attacks in #Kenya, as well as #Pakistan…May Allah soften the hearts of the people, and turn them away from senseless-violence…Amen

Gareth Bryant/2013

Words that have been hijacked in our “Modern-Society”:

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The whole reason for this post is to highlight how powerful language is, whether it is used for positive or negative. My intent is to simply mention a few words, with are originally,  inherently, positive/neutral. But, tragically, these words have been hijacked by persons, groups, governments, media, etc., to project specific agendas. What I intend to do is just to simply empower the public, to take back language, and to not allow others to define language for us, to not allow persons or groups to manipulate language for their own motives.

Here are some of the words I’m referring to, which have been hijacked:

Science-

Science is a beautiful tool, used to discover & define the elements of the Universe, within our limited scope. However, Atheists/Anti-Theists have hijacked Science to promote their agenda, to spread Atheism/Anti-Theism, based upon pretences which really have nothing to do with anything Scientific. They claim that those whom are Theists have very limited, to no true knowledge of Science, yet, when it comes to what they call “proving” that a divine-creator doesn’t exist, they look to Science to promote this baseless-claim. They claim that Theists only use “Faith/Belief”, not empirical-evidence, to come to the conclusion that a divine-creator exists. Yet, ironically, when called to task, to also use “empirical-evidence”, to prove the opposite-view, they aren’t able to disprove the existence of a divine-creator. And, without the use of revelation/revealed-texts, both Theist & Atheists/Anti-Theists are at a 50/50 stalemate, when it comes to either proving or disproving the existence of a divine-creator.

Faith-

Directly piggy-backing upon what has been previously mentioned, Atheists/Anti-Theists manipulate the term “Faith” as the following: to have conviction or belief in something that is no provable via empirical-evidence. This manipulative, deceptive, definition of “Faith” is staple among Atheists/Anti-Theists, against those of a Theistic persuasion. However, ironically, when it comes to the opposite-view, which is obviously the disbelief in the existence of any divine-creator/god of the Universe, they actually do the same thing as the spin on the meaning of “Faith” that they’ve conjured up against Theist: they (Atheist/Anti-Theists) have conviction that no divine-creator/god really exist; yet, they, themselves cannot prove the non-existence of a divine-creator/god, through the usage of empirical-evidence. The non-existence of a divine-creator/god is something that they exclusively believe in, they cannot definitely say that they know a divine-creator/god doesn’t exist, it’s their belief, by definition/extension, it’s their “Faith”, if you will.

Terrorist-

The true meaning of this word is someone whom inflicts fear upon someone, through various means. Now, throughout history, including the history of colonization, particularly/especially the colonization of the New-World & founding of the United States, the term terrorist, if you objectively research the amount of carnage inflicted upon the Natives of the Western-Hemisphere, the severe ill-treatment of Africans, brought from Africa, as slave-laborers, the formation of American Organized-Crime, all individuals involved in the fruition of these happenings & events should, by mere definition, be labeled as terrorists, but they’re not. People like Christopher Colombus, the Pizarro bros., Hernando Cortez, Ponce de Leon, etc. are etched in the annals of written (European/American) history as discoverers or explorers, when in fact they were nothing more than murderers, pillagers looters, rapists, and exploiters. Yet, ironically, you’ll never hear their names in the same category as persons such as Osama Bin-Laden.

Gay-

Originally meaning joyful, this term has been stolen by the Homosexual-Community, projecting to the public that the lifestyle they lead gives them bliss, where in fact, they are among the most depressed, substance-abusing, suicide-attempting demographic, arguably, in Human-History.

Fundamentalist-

This word initially comes from the word fundamental, meaning something grounded, sound, pure, stable, etc. So, a fundamentalist is really a person whom functions based upon strong, sound principles. However, unfortunately, in our modern society, fundamentalist has been used, unfairly, as a euphemism for an extremist.

Pedophile-

The etymology of this word is from Latin, meaning to have a positive-affinity for children. Sadly, this word has been attributed to something very ugly & sadistic, known as child-molestation. And, it’s very sad how people have allowed an originally pleasant word like this to be horrendously transformed into meaning something so disgusting.

Vigilante-

Vigilante originally comes from the word vigil, meaning watchful, observant, protective, etc. Unfortunately, this word is now used in our society as someone whom is a lawless individual, whom is vengeance-bent.

Gareth Bryant/2013

My thoughts on negative portrayls of Muhammad (Peace be upon him) inciting violence in the Muslim-World:

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The recent attacks on U.S. Embassies in the Muslim-World, mainly in the Mideast, as a result of numerous negative, propaganda, short-films, caricatures, cartoons, pamphlets, novels, books, movies, shows, etc. negatively portraying Muhammad (Peace be upon him), has incited immense violence all across the Muslim-World, particularly, in places like Libya, Sudan, Yemen, and several other Muslim countries-Now, with nations like these, in deep-rooted political instability to begin with, as a result of events such as the Arab-Spring & removals of dictators, or by partitions of portions of their nations to make other independent states, of course, inciting religiously motivated violence would give any nation, with interests in this region, particularly/especially the U.S., an excuse to swoop in, play the liberator/saviour card, and at the exact same time, horde whatever resources are available in this country, for their own devices.

This has happened before, and it’s very likely to happen yet again. And, also, since Islam has been seen as a radical cult by certain groups of people, governments, etc., for centuries, it’s of course easy to project attacks upon our faith, while knowing fully well that most people in the Muslim-World are so ignorantly off-based to what the true spirit & practice of Islam really is, that any remote attack on anything or anyone connected with Islam will incite senseless violence. Unfortunately, as well, as ironically, we as Muslims always, in our ignorance feel that we must “defend” the honor of Muhammad (Peace be upon him), whenever people say negative things about him. Well, yes, this is true. However, there’s always a right way of doing it & a wrong way of doing it.

There are some very important aspects of how to deal with things such as this:

-One, obeying what Allah says about how to react to attacks by those who disbelieve in the guidance sent by Allah, and/or those who oppress the righteous, and/or oppose the progress of, or those who cause harm to, those who believe in the guidance of Allah.(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.6, V.34; Chpt.7, V.87; Chpt.11, V.115; Chpt.14, V.12; Chpt.86, V.17)

-Two, learning from the Prophetic-Example directly, referring to how to react to opposition to the progress of Islam by the enemies of Allah-When Muhammad (Peace be upon him) was religiously & personally slandered, or attacked, especially when he & his Companions (May Allah be pleased with them all-together) were in a state of weakness, without an Islamic-State (central Islamic government), in many ways much similarly to how weak the Muslim-World is currently, he never attacked people back. He never fought fire with fire; rather, he fought fire with water. There are authentic reports of people doing & saying mean-spirited things about Muhammad (Peace be upon him), during his own lifetime, right in his direct presence.(al-Bukhari, Riyadh-us-Salihin) He never fought against them, nor ordered their deaths, until after Allah had given him & the Companions (May Allah be pleased with them all-together) the order/permission to meet their enemies on the field of battle.(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.2, V.216; Chpt.2, V.190-194; Chpt.47, V.4; )

-Three, having general respect for all Prophets & Messengers (Peace be upon them all-together)-When is the last time that a group of Muslims (regardless of how radical they are) blew up or burned down a Synagogue or Church? Great question, right? And, why do I pose this question? Well, both Jews & Christians say things about previous Prophets, in their remnants of the Torah & Gospel, which are very slanderous in nature. For example: it clearly states in the Bible (a collection of the remnants of the Torah, Psalms and Gospel), that Lot (Peace be upon him) committed incest, with his own daughters(Genesis: 19: 31-36), that Saul, the first King of Israel as a tyrant(1 Samuel 22:20-23), that David (Peace be upon him) sent a man to the battlefield to die, so that he can have that man’s wife (2 Samuel 12: 9-10)…and, all of these accusations are completely false.(Qasas-ul-Anbiya’) These are just a few of the many examples of slander against Prophets; yet, the Muslims only piss & moan when people talk smack about Muhammad (Peace be upon him)-What happened to standing up to defend the honor of any & all Prophets (Peace be upon them all-together), if/when they are spoken about or mentioned in writings and/or films negatively?!!!

Furthermore, more importantly to observe & reflect upon, when is the last time that a Church or Synagogue has been blown up, or burned down, by Muslims, for associating false qualities to Allah? When is the last time that a Reverend, a Rabbi, or any religiously Jewish/Christian figure been dragged into the streets & beaten to death, for saying that they are the “Children of Allah”(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.5, V.18), or for saying that Ezra is the Son of Allah, or that Jesus is the Son of Allah?!!!(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.9, V.30)-It’s never happened-I mean isn’t it much worse to say something false about Allah, as opposed to a created, thing/a Human being, regardless to whether or not they’re a Prophet, a recipient of some type of revelation from Allah, or a righteous person?(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.18, V.15)

So, since the Muslim-World has never went up in arms, destroying Embassies & beating people in the streets, for someone committing Shirk with Allah (associating false qualities with Allah, which is the worst sin that any created thing can do), then, why would we only do it because of a film-short, filled with obvious misinformation, that is exclusively intended to get an emotional rise out of us, in the strategic hopes that we’ll be foolish & unintelligent enough to behave & react stupidly (which unfortunately we have in many parts of the Muslim/Arab-World), just because of a movie short. To be fair & honest, there have been, historically & contemporarily, so many slanderously produced materials about Islam & Muslims, which the Muslims have said and/or done absolutely nothing about, like all of the Jesus-Movies for example, which portray Jesus (Peace be upon him) as the “Son of Allah”, knowing fully well, based upon the text of our book of guidance, the Qur’an, that this is an obvious lie.

Also, when is the last time that we, as Muslims, destroyed the whorehouses in Saudi Arabia, UAE, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman, dragged the pimps of Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Albanina out in the streets & beat them senseless/to death, or burn down the pornography stores and/or newsstands which sell obscene sexual-material (movies, magazines, etc.) which are owned & operated by Muslims from Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Senegal, Guinea, Gambia, Mauritania, or supermarkets/stores owned by Bengalis, Pakis, Yemenis, Jordanians and Palestinians, which sell pork, alcohol, cigarettes, cigars, marijuana roll-up leaves, heroin-syringes, crack-stems/crack-pipes Lotto, or put and end to drug-smuggling & money/credit-card fraud-schemes run by Nigerians, and all of these various other types of vices that people all over the world freely indulge in?!!!

These are questions which we must/need to ask ourselves & also find the answers to!!!

Gareth Bryant/2012

My thoughts on Mohamed Mursi, the Muslim-Brotherhood & a potentially new Egypt:

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The Muslim Brotherhood has recently acquired, via one of their own, the reigns of the Presidency of Egypt. Now, the office of President, in the hands of Mohamed Mursi,  has caused a lot of concern, as well as controversy, within Egypt herself, within the Mideast, among her regional neighbors, as well as on the international political stage, by virtue of the Muslim Brotherhood’s history of being religiously radical, extremist, etc., or, in many cases, falsely accused of being religiously radical, extremist, etc. But, let’s look at the history of the Muslim Brotherhood, in a proper perspective, to see how the Muslim Brotherhood emerged, evolved, and, why are they such a feared political force in the Muslim/Arab-World, as well as in the eyes of the broader international-community.

The Muslims Brotherhood was actually formed as a result of the want, within Egypt, among its people, to rise against British influence/rule, during the waning years of Egypt’s last monarchy, the Mamlukes. Initially, the Muslim Brotherhood served as a revolutionary movement, to rout the Mamlukes, as well as the British shadow-rulers & kick them out of Egypt, leaving & letting Egyptians to write their own story, on the walls of time-The founder of the Muslim Brotherhood was known as Hassan al-Banna.(The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood, Robert S. Leiken & Steven Brooke, Foreign Affairs Magazine)

The Muslim Brotherhood is now, what it has always been: a religious movement, centralized, but, not limited to Egypt or the Muslim/Arab-World, geared towards making Islam the law of the land. Now, in theory, this seems great. However, if/when not applied correctly, actually based upon the Qur’an & Sunnah (Prophetic-Tradition), this objective & fervor, for the establishment of the Shari`ah (Islamic-Law), can/will have very dangerous & disastrous results. And, historically, unfortunately, the Muslim Brotherhood has deviated from its roots, at different times, from simply being a religious-movement, to lowering itself to more like a religious-gang, even to the extent of the Muslim Brotherhood being directly responsible for the assassinations of many prominent figures in Egypt, like Prime Minister  Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha, as well as their own founder, Hassan al-Banna himself, in 1949.(BBC News: “Profile: Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood”, Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience, Caryle Murphy)

After the expulsion of the Mamlukes & the British, in 1952, Egypt, was finally free to carve out her own political path. However, there were a lot of hurdles for the Muslim Brotherhood, mainly because of the fact that that they had directly supported a military-coup, lead by a secularist, with military strength, by the name of Gamal Abdel Nasser. He was very clear on making Egypt a secular state, which was in complete contradiction to the fundamental founding principles of the Muslim Brotherhood. The establishment of a secular Egypt really rubbed the Muslim Brotherhood the wrong way, to the extent that they, in 1954, began to openly oppose the newly formed constitution of Egypt, taking the stance that it was not in accordance to the Shari`ah.(BBC: “Power of Nightmares”)

Also, they openly opposed Gamal Abdel Nasser, whom, ironically, they had once willingly supported, against the Mamlukes & the British. The Muslim Brotherhood was actually blamed for an assassination-attempt, against Gamal Abdel Nasser, in 1954. And, this was definitely something that Nasser used, to his advantage, to marginalize his potential political competition-He immediately made moves, to hunt down, arrest, prosecute, torture, imprison, and, even execute members of the Muslim Brotherhood. In fact, the most famous member of the Muslim Brotherhood, even overshadowing its founder, Hassan al-Banna, Sayyid Qutb, was executed under the Nasser administration, in 1965. Qutb, a Muslim thinker, activist, and, anti-Nasser propagator, was famous, mainly, for issuing his work, Milestones.

At first, Qutb was imprisoned & tortured, after the assassination attempt on Nasser. Being a member of the Muslim Brotherhood made him an easy-target, among many other easy-targets. Then, after being released from prison, he committed himself to the writing of what would be his most famous work, Milestones, in 1964. Milestones laid the groundwork for what Qutb’s vision of how to recreate an Islamic-State should be approached, within the traditional & external Muslim-World, particularly, within the Arab-World. However, this work, in the text itself, is responsible for ideas that have given rise & justification, used by latter peoples, influenced by his works, to pronounce Takfir (Blasphemy) upon other Muslims, for not ruling their respective countries, according to the Shari`ah. Upon this, it seemed as though Qutb, within his work, Milestones was blatantly giving Muslims the green-light to assassinate their own leaders, because of the fact that they were governing over others, with secular/non-religious laws, thereby making it okay to declare them Non-Muslims & thus lawful to kill.(BBC: “Power of Nightmares”)

This placed Muslim leaders, within the Arab-World under immense fear, because if the common-people were to buy into this concept, that they were no longer Muslims, not only would they lose their power, but, they would also lose their lives. So, Nasser spared no expense to get rid of Qutb any way that he could, which he did. After the execution of Sayyid Qutb, in 1965, he became a Pan-Islamic/Pan-Arab icon, not only in Egypt, but all across the Muslim-World, as well as the Arab-World.  This act of the execution of Qutb, along with other prominent figures in the Muslim Brotherhood, at the time, charged up this movement to be even more radical against their government, in Egypt, and, their influence, which had been spreading to other parts of the Muslim-World, in other countries, had begun to expand rapidly.

Over the course of the next 4 decades, after the execution of Sayyid Qutb, the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood has shaped the revolutionary landscape & mindset of Muslims, in the Muslim-World, that has not reversed since. The Muslim Brotherhood has been credited, most notably, of inspiring the rise of various splinter movements & groups, such as Hamas, in Palestine & Syria, al-Qaeda, globally, Al Eslah Society, in Bahrain, Iraqi Islamic Party, Muslim Brotherhood Society, in Jordan & Palestine, National Islamic Front, in Sudan,  Movement for the Society of Peace, in Algeria, and Hadas, in Kuwait-As far as personalities go, the Muslim Brotherhood has also been credited in shaping the ideologies of people like Ayman al-Zawahri, the mentor of Osama bin-Laden.(BBC: “Power of Nightmares”,  Financial Times, Newsweek journalists Mark Hosenball & Michael Isikoff) Now, with all of this said, what should our conclusion be, and what do we learn from this, and, more specifically, what does this mean for a future Egypt?

My take on this is very simple:
The historical backdrop of the Muslim Brotherhood is very important to know, as to get a very clear sense of why some people may love them, as well as why some people may hate them, as well as knowing how they, as a group, as a movement have, for better or for worse, been a dominant factor in how politics in the Muslim/Arab-World has played out. Also, knowing the past gives us a better insight into how the future may develop. Egypt has a lot of problems, not saying not. However, maybe if given the chance, Mursi, along with his new administration, along with the support of Egyptians, themselves, may be able to pick up Egypt, by her bootstraps, and take her to a better place. I’m of the stance that Mohamed Mursi needs to be given a fair shot, to do the job right, before he is criticized, for causing instability & danger in the Mideast, by Egypt’s neighbors, or nations with particular interests, and/or alterior motives, to dominate the region.

Gareth Bryant/2012