Tag Archives: Arab World

The Bilal Movie: Why it still reinforces the Slave-Narrative of Black-People.

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The Bilāl Movie is actually a Sucka-Emcee Production: Bilāl ibn-Rabāh (May Allah be pleased with him) actually was Arab via his Father Rabāh, from Banī-Jumah, one of the Families of Quraysh, making Bilāl Tribally-Related to Muhammad (Peace be upon him).(The Sealed-Nectar) The mere fact that Rabāh is neither casted, mentioned, nor even referenced in the Film, truly says a lot as per the Agenda of the Producers of this Film: to do exactly what the Pagan Arabs did to Bilāl, which was to deny him his Arabness & replace it with Blackness. I’ll speak more on this-The Reason why Blackness was imposed upon Bilāl is because as a Slave (prior to his Liberation) he had 0-Rights, not even the Right to lay claim to his own Paternal Arab-Genealogy. This, of course, was due to the fact that the Arabs possessed immense disdain for Abyssinia/Ancient-Ethiopia & its People, resulting from the generational Military-Conflicts between them, based upon religio-political & socio-economic dominance in the region, which of course was imposed upon Bilāl, by virtue of him having an Abyssinian-Mother.

The Political-Discord between the Arabs & Abyssinians occured as a result of the Abyssinians of Yemen, then a Colony of Abyssinia, wanting to divert Commerce from al-Makkah to Yemen via making a Church named al-Qullays: a Mock-Kabah, to draw Pilgrims to make al-Hajj/Pilgrimage in Yemen as opposed to al-Makkah. Once the Quraysh learned of this, a Man went to Yemen and desecrated this Church, infuriating the People of Yemen, thereby inciting War…this became known as the War of the Elephant. After the War/Year of the Elephant, which an Abyssinian-Army with an Elephant-Cavalry failed to invade/conquer al-Makkah and were defeated (resulting from Allah casting upon them Flocks of Birds dropping Sijjīl/Firery-Stones [Noble-Qur’ān: Chpt.105; at-Tabarī; as-Suyūtī]), in retaliation, the Arabs of al-Makkah: the Quraysh & their many Allies in turn invaded Yemen. When this happened, countless Abyssinians were captured by the Arabs, including the Mother of Bilāl, Hammāmah, of Abyssinian-Royalty, and Human-Trafficked to al-Makkah-These People became Slaves.(ibn-Ishāq, at-Tabarī, as-Suyūtī) And, this is actually why Bilāl ibn-Rabāh was referred to in a disrespectful way, by Abī-Dharr al-Ghifārī (May Allah be pleased with him)…by the way: the Narration never textually states that he called Bilāl “Son of a Black-Woman”…that was a Commentative Add-On, as is commonly told concerning this Story. This is exclusively based upon Scholastic-Conjecture on part of al-Bukhārī, which this Add-On exists within his Hadīth-Collection Sahīh-ul-Bukhārī.(Fath-ul-Bārī) Ironically, even Abū-Dharr al-Ghifārī is described as being Darkskinned.(ibn-Ishāq, at-Tabarī, as-Suyūtī, Muslim, ibn-Sa`d, adh-Dhahabī, http://www.alajamwalarab.com)

This Film also (subliminally) simply is a Muslim-Version of 12-Years A Slave: it reinforces Subserviance, Destitution, Acceptance of Slave-Culture, etc. Why is it that Bilāl is the only “Black-Companion” highlighted/depicted in Film, Narrative, etc. as “the Slave/Ex-Slave”?!!! Why is it that none of Bilāl’s Military/Statesmanhood Accomplishments are ever highlighted/detailed in Film/Narrative?!!! For example: did you know that Bilāl participated in all the known Major-Battles during the Lifetime of Muhammad (Peace be upon him); did you know that Bilāl was the 1st Minister of Bayt-il-Māl/Secretary of the Islāmic-Treasury: the Chief-Administrator responsible for the collection of az-Zakāh/Taxation & distribution of as-Sadaqah/Philanthropy?!!!(Battles Of The Prophet, Lives Of The Companions, at-Tabarī, as-Suyūtī)

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The only Reason why Bilāl is still inaccurately portrayed as being “Black” is because he was once a Slave. Had he always been Free, no one would’ve ever attributed “Blackness” to Bilāl. Let’s actually take a look at what the Skin-Complexion of Bilāl actually was. According to Ahādīth/Narrations, recorded in various Collections: Bilāl really wasn’t any darker than any other Muslim/Non Muslim Arabs of his Lifetime. In fact, it was common-place for Arabs to boast & laude their Dark-Complexions & ridicule the Complexions of Non-Arabs described as al-Humrah (Reddish-White).(Lisān-ul`Arab: Lexicon of the Arabic-Language, ibn-Manzhūr) However, ironically, almost every single portrayal of him in Literature, Film, etc. depicts him as “Shaka Zulu Black” and/or the Darkest-Person around. Like, in the Film “The Message” for example…the Producers of this Film (in both the Hollywood & Arab Versions) purposely casted the Darkest/Blackest Human-Being they could find to portray Bilāl on Screen…the Question is why?!!! Simple, to continue the Pseudo-Narrative of equating Blackness to Slavery & Servitude. Even in the Hollywood version of “The Message”, Bilāl is emphatically called “Black-Bilāl”…Word4Word…that alone should tell you something.

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The Pseudo-Narrative of Bilāl is directly paralleled with the Pseudo-Narrative of Sally Hemings: the only Reasons why either of them are ethno-historically falsely-portrayed as being “Black” is because they were both Born-Slaves & both their Mothers were Black (Hammāmah, Betty Hemings: even Betty Hemings herself had a European-Father but cause she was a Slave she was considered “Black”). The Father, Paternal-Grandfather, Paternal Great-Grandfather of Sally Hemings were all White-Men/Slave-Owners. Her Slave-Owner, Thomas Jefferson (who essentially used her as a Sex-Slave) was actually her Brother-In-Law (Jefferson’s Wife, Martha Wayles & Sally Hemings had the same Father: John Wayles).(at-Tabarī; Hayāt-us-Sahābah; Virginia House of Burgesses: British Coastal Colonial Law of Slavery, 1660)

Muslim Matters actually published a Review of the Movie.(https://muslimmatters.org/2018/02/03/5-things-to-know-about-the-movie-before-watching-it-review-of-bilal-a-new-breed-of-hero/) Their Film-Commentary of Bilāl not only reinforces my Point, as per the continuation of a Pseudo-Narrrative, predicated upon al-`Asabiyyah/Xenophobia, but also the Major-Themes of Islām aren’t even highlighted. Once again, the important Narrative of Bilāl has been shamefully compromised, at the expense of wanting to capitalize on “Blackness” being at the forefront of World/US Politics via Libya, Police-Brutality, Racial-Profiling, Human-Trafficking, etc.

Gareth Bryant/2018

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Gareth Bryant’s Reasons why ISIS is a Myth:

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Now, after watching this video, from C-Span, a very reputable media outlet, dating back to 1990, I was compelled to seriously examine the reasons as to why ISIS, the so-called “Islamic-State” is another from among so many past/present Phantom-Enemies which the United States & her crony-allies have invented. So, the following are just some of many conclusions that I’ve come to as to why ISIS is a Mythology:

1. The first time that ISIS is largely publicized is in 2014. However, as of recently, the Media now states that ISIS has existed ever since the beginning of the Iraq-War, which started in 2003. My question is why has the Public only being told about ISIS now, if it had existed all this time? The information mentioned in the above video makes that fairly clear.

2. In order for any entity to be given the credibility & acknowledgement of being an Islamic-State, there’s several things which have to take place:

a. Those claiming to be leaders of an Islamic-State have to be Muslims & the identities of those claiming legitimacy to the position of being heads of an Islamic-State have to be well-known to the Public.

b. They have to be Muslims who are respected among their peers & the general body of Muslims everywhere.

c. They have to be given Bay`ah/Allegiance: all Muslims have to acknowledge the legitimacy of those claiming to be the heads of an Islamic-State, which has not happened & will not happen, because the actions of ISIS are inherently antithetical to Islamic-Teachings.

d. They have to possess independent territories, as opposed to what’s happening in the Middle-East, People claiming to be the leaders of the Muslim-World embattled in a country/countries which have been militarily-occupied by Non-Muslims, and/or Muslims who don’t accept their legitimacy in the first place.

3. ISIS, the name itself, is an acronym, and acronyms don’t even exist in the Arabic-Language. the Members of ISIS largely don’t speak English, so how is it that they got the idea to name their Islamic-State with a linguistic concept that doesn’t even exist in the language which they speak? This acronym was placed upon them by Western-Media.

4. ISIS is the actual name of an Ancient-Egyptian pagan-goddess. So, why would any Islamic-State name itself after a pagan god/goddess, when Paganism (a form of Shirk: ascribing false-qualities to Allah) is completely antithetical to Islamic-Teachings?

5. John McCain stated publicly that they’ve sat at the table with Members of ISIS. Now, as a Member of Congress, more specifically the House of the Senate, the largest lawmaking body in the United States, who gave McCain any authority to sit at the table with a so-called terrorist-group, knowing the official-policy of the US is to not sit at the table with Terrorists? How was he able to leave Syria/Iraq safely/with his life? He’s a well-known figure in the World, this Person almost became a US-President, so he’s known: why wasn’t he taken as a hostage, or taken for ransom?  All of these questions have yet to be answered.

Gareth Bryant/2015

My Commentary on Interfaith-Marriage:

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I will be showing you a video posted on YouTube, by the Muslim Public Affairs Council, hosted by Maher Hathout, who died in January of 2015, dubbed the Father of American-Muslim Identity”. This video is a part of a series of videos, concerning topics which are not discussed enough or at all among Muslims, Interfaith-Marriage being one of these recurring hotbed-issues. However, within the video itself, there’s a lot of problematic stances which the personality answering the questions takes, which I’ll discuss after you’ve viewed the video:

This video is incredibly inaccurate & misleading: Allah clearly states, “And do not allow the Men of Shirk to marry you, unless they believe.”(Noble-Qur’an: Chpt.2, V.221) The Men of Shirk are those who commit Shirk: disregard of the existence/oneness of Allah & all Non-Muslim commit Shirk in one way or another, either via Atheism/Anti-Theism (disregarding the existence of Allah/any Divine-Creator generally), as well as any other Non-Muslims who have theological-beliefs contrary to what we’re taught as Muslims via al-Qur’an/the Qur’an & as-Sunnah/the Prophetic-Tradition. In other words, a Muslim-Woman is prohibited from marrying any Non-Muslim Man. And this is because of the following reasons: when a Woman is sexually-attached to a Man, his influence over her is tremendous. Obviously, Allah knowing His Creation better than we know ourselves, places a prohibition upon Muslim-Women being married to Non-Muslim Men, because Non-Muslim Men will influence Muslim-Women to leave Islam & it happens all of the time. And, the major reason that Muslim-Men are allowed to marry (Jewish & Christian) Non-Muslim Women is because of the same reason: as a result of a Man, by Nature being able to influence a Woman via sexual-attachment, he’s better able to encourage her to accept Islam. Also look at it statistically: how often do you hear about Men leaving Islam, because they’re with a Non-Muslim Woman…hardly ever…conversely, how often do you hear about Women leaving Islam, because they’re with a Non-Muslim Man…almost always.

Maher Hathout has purposely…purposefully misinformed People, both Muslims & Non-Muslims alike. Now, I don’t know who gave him the privilege to be any type of authority to speak about Islam, but he has truly not done a good job in dispelling misconceptions and/or clarifying conceptions of Islam. He had mere done what so many, too Muslims past & present have always done: take the go-along to get-along route…instead of being honest about about what Islam allows vs. disallows, in the objective of being Interfaith-Accepted, he had allowed himself to misinform masses of People of various faiths to take his word seriously, and had sadly deceived them…this video being only one of many proofs of this.

Gareth Bryant/2015

Gareth Bryant featured on The Mardiyah Show Episode 4 Part 2

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Author’s Note:
This is the official interview of Gareth Bryant, on one of his most controversial articles to date, “Why Muslim Women Are Against Polygyny and Why Muslim Men Can’t Really Blame Them”:

http://www.garethbryant.wordpress.com/2014/06/25/antipolygyny/

Gareth Bryant featured on The Mardiyah Show Episode 4 Part I

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Author’s Note:
This is the official interview of Gareth Bryant, on one of his most controversial articles to date, “Why Muslim Women Are Against Polygyny and Why Muslim Men Can’t Really Blame Them”:

http://www.garethbryant.wordpress.com/2014/06/25/antipolygyny/

If the U.S. says it’s not a Coup, then I guess it’s not a Coup, huh?!!!

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The United States‬ is still not declaring the Coup in Egypt‬ a Coup‬

…Oh, I wonder why?

1. Could it be because of all of the influence that the United States wants to maintain in ‪‎Egypt‬, by supporting the military-fashioned dictators, whom all do the bidding of the United States?

2. Or, maybe it’s because of all the billions of dollars worth of U.S. Foreign-Aid sent to Egypt, on an annual-basis, which compels Egypt to do the bidding of the United States?

3. Then, again, it could be because of all of the allowances of Egypt for the United States to have the infamous CIA Torture-Camps, within Egypt, that have been used by the United States, since the 1950’s?

Yeah…really interesting stuff, right?!!!

To put it very simply:

The United States is truly an amazingly-hypocritical nation…

…America is, literally the only nation, in Human-History, that has official laws about” not negotiating with Terrorists-Groups/Organizations” and “not supporting Military-Coups, when they’ve actually, constantly/consistently, done those same exact 2-things within the past 4-decades alone, while no one within the U.S. gov’t. has yet to acknowledge this: Nicaragua (via the infamous Iran-Contra Affair, which brings us to the “not negotiating with Terrorists” thing, which I’ve written extensively about, in a previous blog-post: http://www.garethbryant.wordpress.com/2011/10/10/ifanwaralawlakiwereolivernorthhedstillbealivechillin), Panama, Grenada, and these are just some of many examples…Ahhh, America…Land of the Corrupt & home of the Hypocrites.

Gareth Bryant/2013

Rape is a Crime…no matter who does it!!!

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Fayhan al Ghamdi pic

I, as a Muslim, as a Man, am truly disgusted when I hear about rape, especially referring to cases of children being assaulted. Things like rape in the Muslim-World cause Islamophobes to reinforce all of the classic Islamophobic rhetoric against Islam. We, as Muslims, have a horrible habit of making the Islamophobe’s jobs easier, by doing things that will definitely be used against us. Now, a young girl has been violently abused & killed…and, for what?!!! There is something clearly wrong here.

There is no reason as to why this person, Fayhan al-Ghamdi can just shell-out money, and walk away from such a heinous-crime, as this. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have truly done a disservice to this young girl, Lama al-Ghamdi, the actual victim/child of this monster. To add insult to injury, this person is a religious-celebrity in Saudi itself. Now, what type of message does this really send to people all around the world?

I’ll tell you:

1. It reinforces the legitimacy of of Islamophobes, anywhere/everywhere in the world, to attack Islam & Muslims, and accuse us of being Misogynists & followers of a “Misogynistic-Religion”. We always tend to make attacks against Islam & Muslims so easy for Islamophobes to do, by doing exactly the opposite of what Islam teaches us.

2. It tells people that as long as you’re in good with the Saudi-Kingdom, you can basically get away with whatever you want, and only have to cash-out, in order to avoid any form of true justice. It reinforces the hypocrisy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as a 1/2-ass religious-state, where in fact, it’s nothing more than an in-house, all-boys club of a country, hell-bent on religious domination within the Muslim-World, using al-Makkah, al-Madinah, Clerics, and Petroleum as their trump-cards.

3. It sends the message of as long as we do it, it’s okay; but no one else get do it, except us. If this person had not been a religious-cleric, had not been a native subject/national of Saudi Arabia, had not been an Arab, had not been a high-profile/wealthy/powerful foreigner, then this person would definitely had been executed…ASAP And, this shows you the extremities of how ethnic/family-connections, as well as race play out when it comes to administering “justice” in Saudi Arabia.

4. It sends a clear message to even the subjects/residents of the Kingdom that justice is extremely relative. And, as we all know that, as I say this quite often, “If Justice is relative, then it’s not Justice at all…it’s Hypocrisy.”.

May Allah forgive the Muslim-World, for dropping-the-ball, in regards to allowing Rape & any/all other atrocities to occur, unchecked, in this Mundane, around the world…May Allah give Muslims/Men the integrity & strength to thwart Rape & any/all other Sexual-Offenses that exist in our world…May Allah make us of those whom stand-up for those too weak & helpless to stand-up for themselves…May Allah make us of those whom truly live by what He has sent down via revelation (the Qur’an & Prophetic-Wisdom), to be firm upon that & let it guide our lives, so that we can improve both our lives & the lives of others…May Allah make us of those whom are gentle with the innocent & harsh with the guilty…May Allah make us of those whom are treat others justly & seek-out justice for all…AMEN

#IamLama…#MuslimsStandUp…#RealMenStandUp

Gareth Bryant/2013

2012 in review:

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The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2012 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

4,329 films were submitted to the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. This blog had 29,000 views in 2012. If each view were a film, this blog would power 7 Film Festivals

Click here to see the complete report.

Oppression: What the World needs to be constantly reminded of:

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In light of what has recently been happening in Palestine, let’s look at some historical examples of the same type of oppression, that’s just as vile as what we’ve witnessed in the Levant during our very own lifetimes:

1. The Crusades, the Christian invasions of the Muslim-World, during the Middle-Ages (1095-1456 C.E.)

2. The Spanish & Portuguese-Inquisitions (1478-1821 C.E.)

3. Chattel-Enslavement of Africans & Native-Americans, in the Western-Hemisphere (circa. 1500-1900 C.E.)4. The Indian-Removal & Indian-War tactics & policies of the United States, against the Native-Americans of the continental U.S. (circa. 1781-1901 C.E.)5. The Pogroms of Russia (circa. 1881-1919)

6. The Holocaust of Nazi Germany & Fascist Italy, in Europe, as well as North Africa (circa. 1938-1944 C.E.)

7. The occupation of Palestine & the decimation of the Palestinian people (circa. 1947-present).

Now, is it just me, or are these few examples manifestations of some very pathological behavioral-patterns, that have been a recurring theme within our Human-existence; also, isn’t it most ironic that these same atrocities, that have been imposed upon the Jewish people (#’s 5 & 6) are now, at the hands of a Jewish-State government, imposing very similar acts of terror, strife, rape, murder, destruction, robbery, and torture upon the Palestinian people (#7)?

My thoughts on negative portrayls of Muhammad (Peace be upon him) inciting violence in the Muslim-World:

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The recent attacks on U.S. Embassies in the Muslim-World, mainly in the Mideast, as a result of numerous negative, propaganda, short-films, caricatures, cartoons, pamphlets, novels, books, movies, shows, etc. negatively portraying Muhammad (Peace be upon him), has incited immense violence all across the Muslim-World, particularly, in places like Libya, Sudan, Yemen, and several other Muslim countries-Now, with nations like these, in deep-rooted political instability to begin with, as a result of events such as the Arab-Spring & removals of dictators, or by partitions of portions of their nations to make other independent states, of course, inciting religiously motivated violence would give any nation, with interests in this region, particularly/especially the U.S., an excuse to swoop in, play the liberator/saviour card, and at the exact same time, horde whatever resources are available in this country, for their own devices.

This has happened before, and it’s very likely to happen yet again. And, also, since Islam has been seen as a radical cult by certain groups of people, governments, etc., for centuries, it’s of course easy to project attacks upon our faith, while knowing fully well that most people in the Muslim-World are so ignorantly off-based to what the true spirit & practice of Islam really is, that any remote attack on anything or anyone connected with Islam will incite senseless violence. Unfortunately, as well, as ironically, we as Muslims always, in our ignorance feel that we must “defend” the honor of Muhammad (Peace be upon him), whenever people say negative things about him. Well, yes, this is true. However, there’s always a right way of doing it & a wrong way of doing it.

There are some very important aspects of how to deal with things such as this:

-One, obeying what Allah says about how to react to attacks by those who disbelieve in the guidance sent by Allah, and/or those who oppress the righteous, and/or oppose the progress of, or those who cause harm to, those who believe in the guidance of Allah.(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.6, V.34; Chpt.7, V.87; Chpt.11, V.115; Chpt.14, V.12; Chpt.86, V.17)

-Two, learning from the Prophetic-Example directly, referring to how to react to opposition to the progress of Islam by the enemies of Allah-When Muhammad (Peace be upon him) was religiously & personally slandered, or attacked, especially when he & his Companions (May Allah be pleased with them all-together) were in a state of weakness, without an Islamic-State (central Islamic government), in many ways much similarly to how weak the Muslim-World is currently, he never attacked people back. He never fought fire with fire; rather, he fought fire with water. There are authentic reports of people doing & saying mean-spirited things about Muhammad (Peace be upon him), during his own lifetime, right in his direct presence.(al-Bukhari, Riyadh-us-Salihin) He never fought against them, nor ordered their deaths, until after Allah had given him & the Companions (May Allah be pleased with them all-together) the order/permission to meet their enemies on the field of battle.(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.2, V.216; Chpt.2, V.190-194; Chpt.47, V.4; )

-Three, having general respect for all Prophets & Messengers (Peace be upon them all-together)-When is the last time that a group of Muslims (regardless of how radical they are) blew up or burned down a Synagogue or Church? Great question, right? And, why do I pose this question? Well, both Jews & Christians say things about previous Prophets, in their remnants of the Torah & Gospel, which are very slanderous in nature. For example: it clearly states in the Bible (a collection of the remnants of the Torah, Psalms and Gospel), that Lot (Peace be upon him) committed incest, with his own daughters(Genesis: 19: 31-36), that Saul, the first King of Israel as a tyrant(1 Samuel 22:20-23), that David (Peace be upon him) sent a man to the battlefield to die, so that he can have that man’s wife (2 Samuel 12: 9-10)…and, all of these accusations are completely false.(Qasas-ul-Anbiya’) These are just a few of the many examples of slander against Prophets; yet, the Muslims only piss & moan when people talk smack about Muhammad (Peace be upon him)-What happened to standing up to defend the honor of any & all Prophets (Peace be upon them all-together), if/when they are spoken about or mentioned in writings and/or films negatively?!!!

Furthermore, more importantly to observe & reflect upon, when is the last time that a Church or Synagogue has been blown up, or burned down, by Muslims, for associating false qualities to Allah? When is the last time that a Reverend, a Rabbi, or any religiously Jewish/Christian figure been dragged into the streets & beaten to death, for saying that they are the “Children of Allah”(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.5, V.18), or for saying that Ezra is the Son of Allah, or that Jesus is the Son of Allah?!!!(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.9, V.30)-It’s never happened-I mean isn’t it much worse to say something false about Allah, as opposed to a created, thing/a Human being, regardless to whether or not they’re a Prophet, a recipient of some type of revelation from Allah, or a righteous person?(Noble Qur’an: Chpt.18, V.15)

So, since the Muslim-World has never went up in arms, destroying Embassies & beating people in the streets, for someone committing Shirk with Allah (associating false qualities with Allah, which is the worst sin that any created thing can do), then, why would we only do it because of a film-short, filled with obvious misinformation, that is exclusively intended to get an emotional rise out of us, in the strategic hopes that we’ll be foolish & unintelligent enough to behave & react stupidly (which unfortunately we have in many parts of the Muslim/Arab-World), just because of a movie short. To be fair & honest, there have been, historically & contemporarily, so many slanderously produced materials about Islam & Muslims, which the Muslims have said and/or done absolutely nothing about, like all of the Jesus-Movies for example, which portray Jesus (Peace be upon him) as the “Son of Allah”, knowing fully well, based upon the text of our book of guidance, the Qur’an, that this is an obvious lie.

Also, when is the last time that we, as Muslims, destroyed the whorehouses in Saudi Arabia, UAE, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman, dragged the pimps of Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Albanina out in the streets & beat them senseless/to death, or burn down the pornography stores and/or newsstands which sell obscene sexual-material (movies, magazines, etc.) which are owned & operated by Muslims from Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Senegal, Guinea, Gambia, Mauritania, or supermarkets/stores owned by Bengalis, Pakis, Yemenis, Jordanians and Palestinians, which sell pork, alcohol, cigarettes, cigars, marijuana roll-up leaves, heroin-syringes, crack-stems/crack-pipes Lotto, or put and end to drug-smuggling & money/credit-card fraud-schemes run by Nigerians, and all of these various other types of vices that people all over the world freely indulge in?!!!

These are questions which we must/need to ask ourselves & also find the answers to!!!

Gareth Bryant/2012